Connect with us


Planning an Irish Honeymoon



When planning your dream honeymoon, Ireland is a great choice. You can experience the majesty of Ireland and awe-inspiring history. In County Meath, you can explore the Hill of Tara, the burial site of Celtic kings. Also in County Meath, visit Newgrange, a Unesco World Heritage Site. Newgrange is a site with burial mounds that are thousands of years older than Stonehenge. Unlike Stonehenge, Newgrange is open to the public, and you can explore them as well.

Getting married in Ireland

If you want to be able to say “I do” in a civil ceremony, you can get married in Ireland. While the traditional wedding involved a trip to the church, signing a registry and then a celebrant, wedding ceremonies in Ireland are becoming increasingly popular. There are many different types of ceremonies you can have, including spiritual ceremonies, civil ceremonies, and celebrant-led blessings. Read on to learn about the many types of wedding ceremonies you can have in Ireland.

First, you must submit a marriage registration form. The registration form is the legal document that notifies the marriage. You can find the Registrar online. If you are getting married outside of Ireland, you can request an exception for this process. If you can, choose an office that is close to where you plan to get married. If you plan on getting married in Ireland on your honeymoon, be sure to fill out the marriage registration form and follow the instructions.

Depending on the location, you may want to hold a religious ceremony. There are Catholic, Jewish, and Islamic weddings. While all legal marriages in Ireland must be registered, religious weddings may have specific rules. If you are unsure of which type of ceremony you want, talk to a local priest. In addition, you can get recommendations on local churches and hotels. This way, you’ll be sure to find a place that fits your style and budget.



The Shelbourne Hotel is an elegant five-star hotel in Dublin. Located near St. Stephen’s Green, the hotel is a popular spot for high-end afternoon tea. You can also take advantage of the hotel’s mini-cinema or enjoy sweeping views of the scenic countryside. Ambrusko-Maida recommends booking a suite at this luxury hotel, which offers plenty of amenities and excellent service for a reasonable price.

If you are on a budget, consider staying at a castle. In Co. Clare, you can stay in an old castle with a beautiful spiral staircase and beautifully decorated rooms. You can even enjoy a spa-like modern bathroom while you relax in the luxurious suite. Another romantic choice is a hotel in the town of Dublin. This historic city is filled with romantic castles. A honeymoon in Ireland is a great time to celebrate the union of two people.

Whether you are looking for a fairy-tale setting or a soft adventure, Ireland is an ideal destination. With miles of coastline and lakes, Ireland is a perfect destination for outdoor lovers. There are plenty of water sports and activities, plus quiet country lanes for biking and horseback riding. You can even hike from inn to inn, discovering the beauty of Ireland’s natural landscapes. A honeymoon in Ireland should be full of memories, and a romantic experience in a stunning locale is sure to be remembered forever.


There are several attractions in Ireland for a honeymoon. The capital, Dublin, is an exciting place to explore. A short drive from the capital is the beautiful town of Galway, which has breathtaking scenery, art galleries, and a lively culture. The southern city of Galway is home to a large cathedral and world-class golf course. The surrounding countryside is beautiful and provides plenty of opportunities for romantic road trips. The country is bursting with activities and attractions, and the honeymoon will surely be one to remember.

While there is a lot to do in Dublin, you should visit St. Patrick’s Cathedral and Trinity College, two of Ireland’s oldest buildings. You can also visit the famous Temple Bar and Guinness Storehouse. Don’t miss the city’s main thoroughfares, Grafton Street and O’Connell Street, which offer prime people-watching opportunities. Don’t miss the Brazen Head, the oldest pub in Ireland.


If you are traveling to Ireland on your honeymoon, spring is the best time to visit. Although it’s rainy in spring, you can enjoy the green landscapes and lovely flowers, with fewer crowds than in summer. For those who like sunny weather and long days, summer is the best time to visit Ireland. If you can’t bear the cold weather, you can always try visiting in the off-season. For the most romantic atmosphere, visit Ireland in the fall or the spring.


If your Irish honeymoon is a cultural one, you will want to plan some activities for the two of you. You can explore Dublin’s Trinity College and check out the Book of Kells, which is one of the world’s oldest texts. If you enjoy drinking, Ireland is famous for its Jameson’s whiskey and Guinness beer. You can learn about Guinness at the Guinness Storehouse Brewery, and sample some while visiting the Jameson’s Distillery.

Among the many activities for a honeymoon in Ireland, there are also several wineries and other places to visit in Dublin. The city is a welcoming one, and the atmosphere is laid-back. You can have some fun in the city’s pubs, restaurants, and nightclubs. The city was recently ranked as the world’s 34th best city to live in, so you’ll find a host of other activities to keep you busy.

Westport, a town in County Galway, is another ideal place for an Ireland honeymoon. Its charming countryside has an abundance of flora and fauna. The town is home to the Browne family for almost three centuries, and you can visit the house or even the castle. While you’re there, don’t miss a visit to Grace O’Malley’s castle. During your Ireland honeymoon, you’ll be able to get away from everything and enjoy each other’s company.

Connemara Seaweed Baths

Whether you’re visiting Ireland for a romantic getaway or are preparing for your own honeymoon, make sure you include the Connemara Seaweed Baths on your list of things to do. The only salt water seaweed baths in Ireland are in the West. The baths, located in Galway, Mayo, and Roscommon, are hand-cut, so you can be certain that you’ll be getting fresh seaweed. The salt water in the baths releases minerals and nutrients that your skin will love.


The stunning outdoor playground of Connemara offers a unique opportunity to celebrate your honeymoon. Located in the town of Clifden, the Connemara Seaweed Baths are the perfect place to spend your honeymoon. Indulge in a side-by-side seaweed bath. Afterwards, relax in the Jacuzzi or plunge pool. Couples can enjoy the tranquil atmosphere, candlelight, and delicious food.

The surrounding scenery is also breathtaking. There are rolling green fields and a sheltered cove, with fresh waterfalls plunging into the sea. The shoreline features golden sand and white powder. You can enjoy romantic walks, sunbathing, and picnics. In addition, you can also go sea kayaking, cruising, and snorkeling. The secluded nature of the island makes it the ideal location for a romantic getaway in Ireland.

Cliffs of Moher

ireland honeymoon

If you’re looking for an incredible location for your honeymoon, consider visiting the Cliffs of Moher. Located in County Clare, Ireland, they attract over 700,000 visitors each year. Although the Cliffs of Moher feature a visitor center and steps that lead up to the cliffs, it’s best to start on the farm side and walk to the cliffs. If you’re not sure what to expect from Cliffs of Moher, here are a few tips to help you enjoy your stay.

First, be sure to plan an itinerary that takes in the breathtaking landscape of the Cliffs of Moher. While the Cliffs of Moher are spectacular, they also provide an amazing photo opportunity for the happy couple. You can stop by O’Brien’s Tower to take in the views. This 1835 tower is located on the highest point of the cliffs and offers a 360-degree view of the surrounding area.

Next, don’t miss the Branaunmore sea stack. This 67-metre-high sea stack once made its way into the Irish Sea. Cliffs of Moher are a popular tourist attraction in Ireland, and the natural beauty of the cliffs is truly stunning. Whether you’re looking for the perfect backdrop for your honeymoon or your next romantic getaway, the Cliffs of Moher will surely inspire your love.


Continue Reading


Las Vegas Royal Wedding Chapels




Las Vegas Royal Wedding Chapels

If you’ve always wanted to wed at a royal wedding chapel, you’re not alone. Many people dream of walking down the aisle at the Westminster Abbey, St. George’s Chapel, or St. James’s Palace. But where can you get married outside the United Kingdom? If you’re ready to live like royalty, there are a number of Las Vegas royal wedding chapels that can help you fulfill your dreams. Read on to learn more.

Westminster Abbey

It is a royal tradition to hold a wedding ceremony in the Westminster Abbey royal wedding chapel. This is the place where two of the most famous royal weddings in the English history have taken place. In the 11th century, Queen Anne married Richard II and left as the Queen of England. Prince Albert married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in Westminster Abbey on April 26, 1923. Today, it is the most popular wedding location in the United Kingdom.

The iconic dome of St Paul’s Cathedral is an eye-catching feature of the wedding chapel. Not only does it offer beautiful interiors, but the views of the city are also breathtaking. The houses of parliament and Big Ben are only a short tube ride away. The cathedral is also close to other popular tourist attractions, including Buckingham Palace and St James’s Palace. There are also tours of the Westminster Abbey royal wedding chapel, and the Queen Mother’s funeral was held here in 2011.

Meghan Markle, a former actress, chose a smaller royal wedding chapel over Westminster Abbey. Although the famous royal wedding chapel held Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles, and Kate Middleton, Meghan Markle and Harry wanted a more informal celebration in the country. This is why St. George’s Chapel is a great choice for a smaller ceremony. The chapel seats about eight hundred people and was designed by Hans Holbein in the 16th century.


The Ascot Room can seat up to fifteen guests, while the Chamber can accommodate up to a hundred. The Chapel can be hired for PS395 for a wedding ceremony if the couple lives in the Royal Borough. Couples living outside of Windsor should be aware that prices at the Abbey can start at PS560 per hour and soar to PS785 on weekends. The chapel also has strict rules about who can marry there.

St. George’s Chapel

Queen Victoria is one of the most famous people to have wed at St. George’s Chapel. The bride and groom will be seated behind Queen Victoria’s supporter – the Duchess of York. The immediate spectators of the wedding ceremony will include various European princes, the King of Belgium, and the Maharajah. The European ambassadors will sit in the general stalls on the north side of the chapel. The Windsor mayor will be in the rear of the choir.

While the St. George’s Chapel is the most famous Royal wedding chapel, it’s not limited to royals. Residents of Windsor Castle and the College of St. George can also have a wedding here. Meghan and Harry had to obtain permission from the Queen before marrying, but Princess Eugenie and Jack Brooksbank will wed later this year. This will be the third time the Queen has allowed one of her grandchildren to marry.

Although the chapel has hosted royal weddings, it’s perhaps best known for its funerals. It has served as the funeral site for many of Queen Victoria’s children, as well as the late King George VI and his wife, Queen Mary. The chapel has also held dozens of important royal funerals over the centuries, including the bodies of Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen Mother, Prince Harry, and many other important royals.

The Nave and choir areas are covered with turpentine and feature intricately-carved wooden stalls. The elaborately-crafted canopies and stalls are made of English oak felled in the local forest and stained with turpentine. The chapel’s West Window, a huge 11-metre-high window, is another notable feature. The window’s stained glass is said to be the third-largest in England and contains over seventy lights.


St. James’s Palace

The Royal wedding chapel at St. James’s Palace has hosted a number of weddings, including those of Queen Anne in 1683 and Queen Victoria in 1840. Though it seats just 100 guests, it was large enough for Prince George’s christening in 2013.

Located nearby are Kensington Palace and Buckingham Castle. The most senior royal palace in the UK, St James’s Palace played a key role in London’s history. The palace was the site of the wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The palace was home to the Royal Family for nearly 300 years and is still used by some members. The chapel, which can accommodate around 40 people, was designed by German artist Hans Holbein. Sadly, the Palace has not hosted a royal wedding in over thirty years.

The Chapel Royal has hosted a number of other royal events. During the reign of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert was also present. The chapel has also played host to royal weddings in more modern times. Princess Mary of Teck and Prince George were married in 1893 and the Duke of York and Queen Victoria married in 1840. They later had children, and their weddings took place in St. James’s Palace.

Flora and Timothy’s Royal wedding was private, and the bride’s younger cousins were the bridesmaids. The ceremony took place at noon on September 10, 2021. The bride and groom were blessed in front of family and friends at a later date. Protocols surrounding the pandemic, however, may allow the marriage to be blessed in the future. For now, they will have to wait a couple of years before they can do so.

Las Vegas Royal Wedding Chapel

If you’re planning a lavish wedding in Las Vegas, you’ll want to check out the Crystal Wedding Chapel and the Tree of Love. Both of these venues are stunning with high ceilings and a grand stage. They feature various serving options, including buffet, family-style, hors d’oeuvres, and plated meals. Whether you’re planning a lavish ceremony or just an intimate reception, these venues offer the perfect space for both ceremonies and receptions.


Located in North Las Vegas, the Royal Wedding Chapel is easy to find. Follow Las Vegas Boulevard to find the venue. This chapel has four gorgeous settings for all types of weddings and other events. They accommodate up to 300 people. The chapel also accommodates corporate events, as well as engagements, birthday parties, and other social functions. In addition, the chapel accepts all forms of payment and can accommodate all sizes of celebrations.

The Showroom

royal wedding chapel

The Royal Showroom at the Royal Wedding Chapel is a versatile multi-use room, complete with a full bar and state-of-the-art lighting system. Guests can enjoy a three-course dinner with wine pairings and champagne toast. There are two different wedding packages to choose from, each one featuring different features. The Showroom can accommodate up to 300 guests. It is the perfect choice for wedding receptions, cocktail parties, corporate events, small group meetings, or holiday celebrations.

Both wedding chapels have high ceilings and grand stages that make for a luxurious wedding. Guests can enjoy the ceremony under the majestic tree of love, or opt for a more intimate setting under the stars. Both chapels feature custom-designed decorations and grand crystal chandeliers hanging from the high ceilings. Weddings here will have a glamorous and upscale image. A wedding ceremony at The Showroom at the Royal Wedding Chapel will leave an imprint on your guests.

Royal Wedding Chapel is a modern event center located on the famous Las Vegas Strip. Its many venues are perfect for any kind of wedding, from intimate weddings to lavish receptions. The Royal Wedding Chapel is staffed by professionals who will assist you in planning the perfect event. It has four spectacular wedding venues that can accommodate any number of guests. If your budget is a major concern, consider the royal wedding chapel for your wedding.

Continue Reading


The Gabrielle Union Wedding and the Miscarriage That Led to Dwyane Wade’s Marriage




The Gabrielle Union Wedding and the Miscarriage That Led to Dwyane Wade's Marriage

Many people are buzzing about the Gabrielle Union wedding and the miscarriage that led to her marriage to Dwyane Wade. However, the reality is that the celebrity was a little less than perfect on her big day. If you’re planning a big day, you’ll be curious about the many details of the event, including the dress and the reception. Read on to discover more about this enthralling occasion!

Gabrielle Union’s miscarriage

In her new book, “I Was Not Born to Have Children,” actress Gabrielle Union talks about her struggles with infertility, including multiple miscarriages. Before deciding to marry basketball star Dwayne Wade, Gabrielle Union was diagnosed with adenomyosis, a condition where the lining of the uterus grows into the uterus wall. Although she’s a proud mother of two, Union had been trying to conceive for a long time, without any success.

Though she’s only been married for seven years, she opened up about her fertility struggles in the film. While many people assumed that she was too young to have a child, her condition probably started while she was still in her early 20s. Adenomyosis is a painful condition of the uterus. Though she was too young to get pregnant, Union is still determined to become a mother.

In her new book, Union discusses her struggle to become a mother and became a stepmom to Dwyane Wade’s children. Gabrielle Union revealed her struggles with infertility when she met Wade. While Wade and Gabrielle Union didn’t plan to have children, they became stepmothers to their respective children, including his three sons and nephew. In the meantime, the two still want to have a baby of their own.


Despite her infertility struggles, Gabrielle Union still chose to be a stepmom to Wade Funches’ two sons. After a series of failed IVF rounds, Gabrielle Union considered surrogacy to have a child. Wade was the first one to accept the procedure, but they couldn’t have children themselves. In addition to Wade and Gabrielle, Union found a supportive community in the surrogacy community. Wade, her husband, even corresponded on a group chat.

Her relationship with Chris Howard

While Gabrielle Union’s marriage to NFL running back Chris Howard lasted almost five years, the couple separated in 2006 due to cheating scandals. The actress went on to marry NBA star Dwyane Wade, and now she’s focusing on her work as an actress. Gabrielle Union had married basketball star Dwyane Wade in 2008.

Union and Howard first met at a party in 1999. After becoming friends, they went on to date for two years. After their relationship was over, Howard proposed marriage, and the two eventually tied the knot. While Union says that there were warning signs that she should be a runaway bride, the two decided to make it official. Their relationship ended up being a nightmare that both parties were unhappy with. While the relationship was short-lived, it did spark a career in acting for both of them.

After Chris proposed marriage to Union, Gabrielle’s parents were suspicious. They thought that the wedding was a mistake and asked her friend Dule to perform a tarot reading on the two of them. The two were married shortly after the reading. However, in the following months, Chris was caught cheating on his wife, and she later found the number of Angelina in the laundry. After the wedding, Gabrielle also claimed that Chris had a cheating partner, Cameron Camera, who had threatened Chris with a picture of their encounter.

The actress was previously married to actor Gabrielle Union, but they remained friends after their divorce. The couple has not been in a relationship since 2006. However, she is not in a relationship with anyone else. Her relationship with Chris Howard is a mystery and will be revealed as more details emerge. It’s unclear if Howard has a current relationship or not. If so, the actress should stay away from Chris Howard. And if she’s still in a relationship, she should avoid him.


Her wedding dress

It’s been a year since the Hollywood couple married and now Gabrielle Union is sharing new pictures of her wedding dress. The actress shared the photos of her big day on Instagram. We’re sure that she looked beautiful and the wedding dress reflects this, too. Union chose a custom-designed wedding dress by Dennis Basso for her big day. The dress featured a ruched bodice and a full skirt.

The full skirt of the gown created an effective shape on her slim figure and set her against the lush greenery of the ceremony and reception. The wedding dress was also paired with an intricately styled head of hair. The actress kept long raven locks back, pinned up and worn over her shoulder. She looked sultry and utterly gorgeous. It’s clear that Union adores her dress. However, she also reveals that her fiance was involved in the whole process.

The designer of Union’s dress, Dennis Basso, posted a photo of her after the ceremony to show off her gorgeous hairstyle. Union wore a sparkling headband and a veil in the photos. She also posed with her godmother, Deirdre Maloney, who was next to her. A white bouquet and flowing veil complemented her sparkling dress. In a subsequent photo, Union also showed off two updos.

Her husband Dwyane Wade

Dwyane Wade and Gabrielle Union are celebrating their five-year wedding anniversary with the birth of their second child, Kaavia James. Union and Wade first met at an event in 2007 and married in 2007. The couple share a son, Xavier, and a daughter, Zaya. Wade and Union met while they were in their 20s and were friends and co-workers.

After getting married, Wade and Union spent several weeks honeymooning in the Maldives, where they soaked up the sun. Union posted many of the photos on her Instagram account, including pictures of their picnic in Paris. Throughout their honeymoon, the couple will embark on annual summer vacations together. Wade and Gabrielle Union are clearly globetrotters. They will have no shortage of opportunities to share photos on social media.


gabrielle union wedding

Their wedding was attended by a host of celebrities, including Chris Bosh, fiancee Eniko Parish, Ray Allen, and Carmello Anthony. They were also serenaded by Kevin Hart and Essence Atkins, who shared their joy in the photos. The couple’s wedding featured a juke joint-themed reception. Vanilla Puddin’ Chardonnay was served as the official wedding wine.

The couple married in the fall of 2014 at a moat-enclosed castle in Redland, Arizona. While both sides signed confidentiality agreements, key details about the wedding have leaked. Despite this, the couple said that they still support each other’s individuality. They reportedly had five wardrobe changes. In addition, the wedding took place in a historic Chateau, which was never sold.

While their relationship is not public, Gabrielle and Dwyane have attended several charity events together. They reportedly attended Dwyane’s Summer Groove event to raise money for the Wade’s World Foundation. While the two have not publicly confirmed their relationship, they’ve appeared on television and in the news. It is unknown if Dwyane and Gabrielle Union will tie the knot in the future.

The wedding was attended by several celebrities, including Chris Bosh and Carmelo Anthony. The event was held in a hidden location, and guests were shuttled there by private cars. Guests could call a special number to receive directions to the ceremony. Wade and Union arrived in a helicopter. Union wore a designer Dennis Blasso gown, while Wade wore a Dsquared2 tuxedo and a custom bowtie.

Continue Reading


5 Reasons to Book an Adamson House Wedding




If you’ve ever wanted a romantic beach wedding with a historical backdrop, the Adamson House is a must-see! Located on the famous Malibu Lagoon State Beach, the home was once the most expensive piece of real estate in the world! Its beautiful grounds are ideal for picture-perfect moments and have Belgian linens, Moroccan and Spanish touches that will be sure to impress your guests. Here are a few reasons to book an Adamson House wedding!

Connor and Connor’s wedding

Despite the fact that their love story is not quite fairytale, Connor and Lauren are married in a historic Malibu house on the water. Their grandfather officiated their wedding ceremony and is 98 years old. The wedding was a whirlwind of emotion and a true celebration of their love. In addition to their gorgeous wedding ceremony, Connor and Lauren also got ready in separate Airbnbs. Before the ceremony, Connor surprised Lauren by giving her a handmade pill bottle label.

Brett and Tori’s wedding

Brett and Tori’s romantic Malibu beach wedding was one to remember. This Spanish colonial home was built in 1929 and is now a California Historical Landmark. This beautiful venue is located on an oceanfront property and features a front courtyard and a rear lawn with a star fountain. It is open seven days a week from 8am until sunset. The grounds were beautifully maintained and the couple and their guests had a blast.

Taneal and Andrew’s wedding

Taneal and Andrew’s wedding was held at the historic Adamson House in Malibu. The house is a cross reference of the history of Malibu. Andrew is 55 and a filmmaker. He served in the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1776 until 1781, and was speaker in 1780. Andrew is a married man who works in the film industry. His LinkedIn profile lists several credits, including 185 in television and film. He is expecting to marry in May 2022.


For a timeless, elegant and romantic Malibu wedding, the Adamson House is the perfect location. This stately home boasts a beautiful lawn, lush gardens, and an old Spanish style mansion. It has been dubbed the Taj Mahal of tiles due to its extensive use of decorative ceramic tiles. The grounds include idyllic ocean views, as well as a beach-side grass lawn for the ceremony. Aimee and Ryan’s Malibu destination wedding featured the chic design of BURLAP & ROSE and a stunning location.

This beautiful venue features a restaurant that provides contemporary fare and a comfortable atmosphere. The venue draws a mixture of locals, tourists, and golfers, as well as college students and locals. Taneal and Andrew’s wedding also celebrated the union of two families. Andrew’s family is also represented in the wedding. It was the culmination of a dream for both. A wedding at the Adamson House is an enchanting experience that will be remembered for a lifetime.

One of the most memorable aspects of this Malibu venue is its historic value. Its Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and Mediterranean-influenced grounds make it an ideal setting for a romantic ceremony. Located at 23200 Pacific Coast Highway, the historic Adamson House is a must see on your Malibu itinerary. Whether you’re celebrating your nuptials in the heart of an idyllic coastal town or in a tranquil setting, this unique venue will make your day unique.

Despite the quaintness of the venue, Andrew and Taneal’s reception at the historic Adamson House is the perfect location for a wedding. The elegant, city-center setting, colorful tiles and trees make this venue a unique and memorable experience. Aside from the stunning view of the ocean, the Adamson House is also an incredible venue for a romantic dinner. Guests can also explore the house’s interior museum during cocktail hour.

Nicole and Thomas’ wedding

This gorgeous wedding at the Adamson House in Malibu was shot by Laura Grier, a travel blogger and photojournalist. She owns Beautiful Day Photography and specializes in destination weddings. She’s also the author of Wanderlust, a book about her travels around the world. The couple chose a wedding venue that was unique to them, and the grounds of the Adamson House are perfect for a romantic, beach wedding. Real Wedding Mariachis performed during the ceremony and during the cocktail hour, and the bride walked down the aisle to the sound of a live mariachi band.


adamson house wedding

A classic Malibu wedding location, the Adamson House is the perfect place to celebrate the love of two people. It was originally built in 1929 by the bride’s parents, Merritt and Rhoda Rindge Adamson. The house is now a California Historical Landmark and features beautiful landscaping. The couple shared their romantic vows and a surprise song sung by Randi. And while the weather was perfect for their wedding, there was no shortage of fun.

The bride and groom were welcomed into the Adamson House by the families of their guests. The couple’s children, Noah and Faith, are played by actors Eric Braeden and Melody Thomas Scott, respectively. After the ceremony, the couples posed in front of their families and children. They are joined by their daughter Alexandra, and Victor’s son, Victor. Aside from being a part of the Adamson House wedding, the couple will also be buried at the Adamson House.

The couple opted for a civil ceremony, which is unusual for a wedding at the Adamson House. They were married on December 22, and their first son was born in September of 1985. The wedding was very personal for the couple. Their children were also present, and the children’s children were given away as gifts. The couple’s parents were also married at the same time, and the two are now proud of their union.

Continue Reading